Skrýt nabídku

Management of Ecosystems

The long-term target for the management of ecosystems is derived from the strategic aims for nature protection in Bohemian Switzerland NP, which is to have the park included in Category II (national park) according to the International Union for Nature Conservation criteria. For this reason, the management measures in the national park are focussed on moving the ecosystems towards a natural state and increasing the area of territory in the national park which is left to natural processes.

The target state for nature protection is a national park, where:

A) Up to 98% of the area will be left to natural processes. However, the following activities will continue to be permitted on the territory:

• Prevention of fires
• Maintenance of the basic network of paths and trails, the border zone and maintenance of buildings
• Hunting of selected animal species
• Preventing the expansion of invasive species
• Mechanical protection of deciduous trees and fir trees which were planted earlier in the short to medium term
• Revitalisation of the water regime.

Methodological Instructions from the Ministry of the Environment for the Delimitation, Approval and Documentation of Zones for Nature Protection – Ministry of the Environment Guidelines, October 2004, Section 

B) On the remaining territory of the national park (2% of the area) long-term management measures will be implemented, for the following reasons:

• The presence of settlement enclaves and larger areas of agricultural lands (e.g. Mezná, Zámeček u Vysoké Lípy)
• The necessity of permanent monitoring and remedial interventions on rock formations, including the management of forest stands (especially the cliffs above the village of Hřensko) to ensure the safety of the public and of property
• Efforts to maintain small areas of ecosystems which owe their existence to human activities (e.g. forest meadows), for the purposes of species protection or landscape protection.

The main targets for the management of forest ecosystems in Bohemian Switzerland NP during the term of validity of the management plan:

In addition to near-natural ecosystems on the territory of the national park, there are also considerable areas of artificially planted forests with a completely modified species composition and spatial structure. These are predominantly spruce monocultures (spruce covers nearly 60% of the national park) and stands of geographically non-native trees. Specially-focussed forestry activities are necessary during the long-term reconstruction of these forests.

Therefore, the main targets for the management of forest ecosystems in Bohemian Switzerland NP during the term of validity of the management plan are as follows:

• To begin the transformation of the spruce monocultures into forests with a natural age and species differentiation
• To reduce the amount of geographically non-native trees in the forests.

The following general principles will be followed in the management of forest ecosystems:

• Maintenance of the existing natural and near-natural forests
• Increasing the species and spatial diversity of forest stands by way of silvicultural measures
• Only carrying out such measures which are necessary to move the forests towards a more natural state
• Always choosing the most sensitive forestry technology solutions
• Eliminating geographically non-native tree species (Eastern White Pine, Red Oak, European Larch, Douglas Fir) from the forest stands, wherever it is possible
• Ensuring effective protection for natural seeding, advance growth, young growth and young plantations of a natural composition against damage caused by game animals
• Cultivation of reproductive material begins with the collection of seeds in the forest and continues with patient work in the tree nurseries (Beech seedlings are grown on in the nurseries)
• Leaving dead standing trees and a part of the harvested timber in the forests to decay naturally. In the case of non-native tree species, this action must be justified (e.g. due to inaccessible terrain)
• Management of the local tree species gene fund
• In the case of an outbreak of one of the notable insect pests, the overpopulations and overbreeding of such pests will be reduced, using the most sensitive methods possible, and only on territories which are not left to natural processes.
• Restricting the deer populations to such levels which do not endanger the natural regeneration of forest ecosystems.

The Eastern White Pine, which comes from North America, has adapted very well to the local conditions (poor sandy soils, rocky terrain, dry climate). The young trees grow quickly and soon choke out the seedlings of other trees and the herb vegetation. These pines then produce a huge number of seeds which spread rapidly and aggressively throughout the region. The battle against the invasion of these pines is one of the main forestry management targets.

Main targets for the management of non-forest ecosystems in Bohemian Switzerland NP for the term of validity of the management plan.

Even though the dominant ecosystems in Bohemian Switzerland NP are forests, the geobiodiversity of naturally non-forested ecosystems makes a significant contribution to the natural wealth of the national park. This is because a whole range of species of open localities are bound to these ecosystems. Maintaining and creating the conditions which allow a minimum of human influence on these natural localities is an important task within the management of nature in the national park.

All of the non-forested ecosystems, which are considered to be in a favourable and natural condition, are then left to natural processes. These localities include peatbogs, rocky ecosystems including underground spaces, primary non-forested areas on the edge of the sandstone rocks, water flows and spring areas. Some of these ecosystems have been included as subjects of the protection in the Bohemian Switzerland (České Švýcarsko) SCI. Exceptions to the non-intervention regime are made for localities where it is necessary to carry out measures to prevent the invasion of non-native plant species (especially the Eastern White Pine, as well as other species along the water flows). Other exceptions are made in areas where the functional management of the risk of rock falls must be practised in order to ensure the safety of people and to protect property.
In areas with a risk of rock falls, the Bohemian Switzerland NP Administration carries out a wide range of preventative activities using our own resources and personnel. The administration also cooperates with specialised companies and organisations. Prevention especially involves the regular monitoring of selected unstable rock massifs, maintenance of rocky slopes, controls on rock formations and analysis of the degree of risk which they represent.

Naši partneři

Nationalpark Sächsische Schweiz

Park Narodowy Gór Stołowych

EUROPARC Federation